Volume 24, Issue 1, 2024 January - March

Volume 24, No 1 Pages:
2024 January - March Articles: 2

Synthesis and characterization of CZTS and Cu2-xAgxZnSnS4 thin films for the application of solar cells

We report on colloidal Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and Cu2-xAgxZnSnS4 (X=0.25) nanoparticles synthesis by sol-gel spin coating process and hot injection method. The colloidal nanoparticles were deposited on ITO substrates by using spin-coating techniques. The deposited thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectrometer, FE-SEM, Raman spectroscopy and Keithley 2450 Source meter. XRD reveals that the crystal structure of CZTS is confirmed tetragonal structure with peak (112) and observed the changes to wurtzite peak (002) due to the presence of Ag. UV visible spectra show that the optical band gap of CZTS nanoparticles decreases from 2 eV to around 1.75 eV, and there is a significant improvement in absorption coefficient when the sample is prepared under a nitrogen atmosphere. FESEM captured the microstructure image of CZTS and Cu2-xAgxZnSnS4. Photoluminescence (PL) reveals the emission peaks and Raman spectra investigate the secondary phases present. XPS confirms the presence of each element and their oxidation state. Further, electrical properties are studied using the four-probe method at room temperature. CZTS offers optical and electrical properties, which allow it to be suitable for thin-film solar cell absorber layers, and Ag doping enhances its properties.

Morphometric analysis of the Middle Tuirial watershed, Mizoram, India and its significance for soil loss risk

This study aims to highlight the quantitative analysis of Middle Tuirial watershed in Mizoram, India and its significance for soil loss risk. In addition to understanding landscape evolution and hydrological characteristics of the river basin, it is crucial to implement appropriate soil and water conservation practices, to reduce further soil erosion risk in the basin. Linear, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters were analyzed using a survey of India topographical maps, advanced land observing satellite (ALOS) phased array type L-band synthetic aperture radar (PALSAR) digital elevation model (DEM), and geographic information system (GIS). The study reveals a high drainage density of 5.22 km/km2 and stream frequency of 10.58 km2, which denotes the basin exhibits high surface run-off with low groundwater recharge. In addition, it has 0.6 form factor, 0.3 elongated ratio and 0.43 circularity ratio indicating a highly elongated shape of the basin. Furthermore, the hypsometric integral values of 0.48 with an s-curve show the basin has attained a mature stage of landscape evolution.