|Volume 19, No 2||Pages:|
|2019 April-June||Articles: 5|
Melocanna baccifera is a well-known native bamboo species of India belonging to the grass family Poaceae. A study on the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) association with M. baccifera was conducted from a disturbed and undisturbed bamboo forest sites within Mizoram University, Mizoram, India. Soil from the rhizosphere region as well as physico-chemical properties of the soil were taken to study AMF diversity. The roots were observed for percentage colonization by AMF. It was found that undisturbed site had higher colonization percentage (56%) than the disturbed site (46%). The Shannon’s diversity index showed that undisturbed site (1.46) had more diversity than the disturbed site (1.59) while disturbed site showed lower index of dominance (3.34) which indicates higher shared dominance of AMF species than undisturbed site (4.66).
The methanolic extract of C. affinis was evaluated for its in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity by bovine serum albumin denaturation method, egg albumin denaturation method and protease inhibition method at different concentrations. Diclofenac sodium was used as the reference drug. The extract exhibits anti-inflammatory activity in a concentration-dependent manner. In bovine serum albumin denaturation method, the extract at concentrations of 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 µg/ml showed 25.49, 28.43, 31.37, 37.25, 41.17, 48.03% inhibition respectively. In egg albumin denaturation method, the concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 µg/ml showed 5.3, 9.89, 28.12, 32.8, 43.2, 52.8% inhibition respectively. In protease inhibition method the extract at concentration of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 µg/ml showed 8.87, 19.32, 28.56, 43.96, 59.92% inhibition respectively. Therefore, from the results it can be concluded that the methanolic extract of C. affinis possesses anti-inflammatory activity.
Effect of controlled and uncontrolled fermentation temperature on the microbial load, biochemical changes and change in nutritive value of bekang-um was studied in an attempt to upgrade the traditional fermentation technology of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. The sterile cooked beans were fermented using a low-cost wooden incubator developed previously, adjusted at a constant temperature (35°C) and also under direct sunlight for 4 days following the traditional method. The microbial load, biochemical changes and changes in nutritive values of both the beans fermented were compared under controlled and uncontrolled temperature. The result showed that the viable cell counts, pH, free amino acids, proteolytic activity and alpha amylase activity increased in both the fermenting conditions throughout the process while the reducing sugar increased in the first day and decreased gradually with fermentation in both conditions. There is also an increase in moisture, protein and calorific value, and a decrease in carbohydrate, fats and ash value in both conditions. Fermentation under controlled temperature gave the higher levels of alpha amylase and proteolytic activities, viable cell counts, pH, free amino acids and nutritive value. These results suggested that fermentation proceeds at higher rate under controlled temperature using low-cost incubator could be utilized for the commercial production of bekang-um as the fermentation time could be reduced from three days to two days in addition to its simpler technology.
The main objective of the present study is to find out the intensity of radiation attenuated by different types of patient entrance doors (PED) as well as control panel (CP) protective barriers in diagnostic X-ray installations. To measure the intensity of ionizing radiation, ion chamber survey meter was used; all measurements were performed in freeze mode. In setting maximum accelerating potential, minimum tube current and fixed exposure time, a water phantom was exposed through maximum field size. Radiation exposure rates were measured at CPs as well as PEDs with and without barriers. In chest mission, radiation rates with PED ranged from 0.3 µSv/h to 0.7 mSv/h and without PED 0.2 mSv/h to 1.2 mSv/h. At the same time, in couch mission, radiation rates measured behind PED ranged from 0.3 µSv/h to 2.2 mSv/h and 0.03 mSv/h to 2.25 mSv/h in front of PED. All institutions showed higher exposure rates without PED; all types of doors considerably attenuated radiation. Among different types of door, lead-lined door attenuated 99.53% in chest mission and 97.44% in couch mission. While plywood doors attenuated approximately 40% of the incident radiation, it is more or less similar as air does in every half meter away from the phantom. Radiation rates in chest missions with CP barriers ranged from 2 µSv/h to 0.38 mSv/h, while 0.4 mSv/h to 2.35 mSv/h without CP barriers. In couch missions, radiation rates measured with CP barriers varied from 4 µSv/h to 0.6 mSv/h whereas without CP barriers from 0.7 mSv/h to 5 mSv/h. There was a significant difference between radiation measured behind and in front of the CP barriers. Among them, the percentage of attenuation was high in lead and concrete barriers.
The effect of mechanical relaxation time in the elastic wave propagation in elastic materials with voids is investigated. The phase speed and the attenuation coefficients are obtained and observed the effect of mechanical relaxation time. The phenomenon of reflection of elastic waves due to the incident waves from a plane boundary of elastic materials with voids is studied. The amplitude and energy ratios of the reflected waves are obtained. Numerically these ratios, phase speeds and the corresponding attenuation coefficients are computed for a particular model and the effect of mechanical relaxation time is discussed.