Volume 21, Issue 2, 2021 April-June

Volume 21, No 2 Pages:
2021 April-June Articles: 4

Ichnofossils from the Middle Bhuban Unit, Bhuban Formation of Pachhy Lokah near Maubawk, Siaha District, Mizoram, India

Trace fossils provide us with indirect evidence of life in the past, such as the foot prints, tracks, burrows, borings and feces left behind by animals rather than the preserved remains of the body of the actual animal itself. These imprints give palaeontologies clues with evidence of the activities of ancient animals, something body fossils simply cannot do. The Middle Bhuban rocks of Bhuban Formation are well exposed in the study area comprising sandstone, siltstone, shales and their admixtures. The grey sandstone unit exposed at Pachhy Lokah, Siaha is marked by well-preserved trace fossils comprising a total of eleven ichnospecies belonging to seven ichnogenera have been identified, namely: Katbergia isp., Laevicyclus mongraensis, Ophiomorpha nodosa, Ophiomorpha borneensis, Palaeophycus alternatus, Palaeophycus heberti, Palaeophycus striatus, Phycodes curvipalmatum, Psilonichnus upsilon, Psilonichnus isp. and Skolithos verticalis. Thus, it can be inferred from the presence of ichnofossils, that the studied successions of Bhuban Formation, Surma Group of Mizoram were deposited under sandy shifting substrate and high energy conditions in foreshore to unconsolidated, poorly sorted soft substrate and low energy condition in shoreface/offshore zone of shallow marine environment with occasion storm events.

An insight into black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon): A glimpse on globally important crop pest

Many agricultural pests create problems for farmers leading to production loss. Since agriculture plays an important role in the economy of a nation, controlling and management of such pests is of great importance. Cutworms are notorious agricultural pests infesting a wide variety of crops leading to production loss. Cutworms are distributed worldwide and many species of cutworms have also been reported feeding on all kinds of crops. Agrotis ipsilon is one of the most common cutworm species prevailing in different continents. Understanding the biology and management of these pests will be of great use for farmers. In this article, brief information on cutworms; specifically A. ipsilon species is highlighted. A brief description of host, migration, control and management of A. ipsilon are also highlighted.

A review of scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) diversity in India

The diversified geographic location along with climatic conditions has led to the enrichment of fauna species in India. Coleoptera (Gk. Coleos–sheath, ptera–wing) are the largest group of organisms at the order level and are comprised of beetles. They adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions and are widely distributed. The family Scarabaeidae which is included in the superfamily Scarabaeoidea is one of the largest families. They consist of about 27,800 species worldwide and are further divided into 16 subfamilies, 82 tribes and 94 sub-tribes. They are usually harmful or beneficial in nature with their size being large to small. The research on scarab beetles is necessary to understand their role as pest as well as their adaptation to different anthropogenic activities. Also, the diversified population of scarab beetles along with their similar characters makes it hard for researchers to identify them often leading to misidentification which is why a review is needed. This review summarizes the status, diversity and ecological status of scarab beetles in India.

A review on the phytochemical properties of five selected genera of orchids

Orchidaceae family includes some of the most important ornamental plants with medicinal purposes. It is one of the largest groups among the Angiosperms. Even though there are several studies on the medicinal purposes of orchidaceae, lesser is known about the phytochemical compound present in the different parts of the plant. Therefore, in this present review paper five genus from Orchidaceae family has been selected to highlight the important phytochemical compounds present in the orchid plant. The commonly found phytochemicals are alkaloid, flavanoid, phenol, terpenoid, steroid and saponin.