Volume 13, Issue 4, 2013 October-December

Volume 13, No 4 Pages:
2013 October-December Articles: 9

Determination of total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and total antioxidant capacity of Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) King & H. Rob

Petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Ageratina adenophora leaves were screened for assessing bioactive phytochemical constituents. The preliminary phytochemical screening using the standard phytochemical tests detected the presence of alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides and phenols in different solvent extracts. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents along with total antioxidant capacity of the polar methanolic extract of A. adenophora leaves were evaluated to explore the reliable and potential sources of novel natural antioxidants. The methanol extract leaves revealed a total phenolic content of 30.0 mg gallic acid equivalent/g and 510.0 mg quercetin equivalent/g. The total antioxidant capacity ranges from 16.98 to 94.87% of standard ascorbic acid at concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 1 mg/ml of the plant extract in methanol.

Assessment on different levels of noise pollution in Aizawl City, Mizoram, India

Assessment of noise pollution was carried out in Aizawl city of Mizoram during August 2009 to July 2011. Different levels of noise were recorded from industrial zones, commercial zones, residential zones and silence zones by using Sound Level Meter 2031/A. Of all the four zones, residential zones and silence zones were found to exceed the standard prescribed by the Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000. Among the commercial zones New Market and Zangena Petrol Pump exceed the standard level. And all the study sites under industrial zones were within the standard level. Detailed information is presented in the paper.

Population variations of the species of Lepadella patella based on phenotype plasticity in Arak county, Iran

In the present study inter- and intra-population species of Lepadella patella were investigated. For this purpose 110 individual of geographical populations of these rotifers were collected from different parts of Arak county, and for each habitat five ecological factors such as longitude, latitude, elevation, temperature and pH were examined. The ANOVA test and also one-sample t-test showed significant difference for morphological characters. In inter- and intra-population section, 10 individual were selected randomly from each populations, then seven quantitative morphological characters were examined, the individuals were separated from other in the PCA plot and UPGMA tree. Significant correlations negative/positive were found between some of morphological characters with studied ecological factors of habitat, in addition variations in morphological characters were seen between population and they were separated in PCA plot and also UPGMA tree. Ecological factors were different between habitat, therefore in this study, we concluded that variation temperature was most effective among all the ecological factors, on diversification of populations.

Understanding epidemiology and etiologic factors of urolithiasis: an overview

Urolithiasis is a condition in which stones are formed in the urinary tract and considered to be one of the most common urological disorders, longstanding medical illnesses and common public health problems. People in many parts of the world including north eastern states of India are now suffering from the stone diseases. Urinary stone is formed usually due to deposition of calcium, phosphates and oxalates which are a major health hazards. It has been reported that urolithiasis as a multifactorial recurrent disease, distributed worldwide in urban, rural, non-industrial and industrial regions with different chemical composition of analyzed stones in context to various risk factors. Besides diet, genetic factors are also reported to contribute in pathogenesis of urolithiasis. Better understanding of the various aspects of this disease including causative agents may provide an insight of this disorder to the researcher and common people in order to contain this disease. The epidemiology and various etiologic factors of urolithiasis are highlighted in this communication.

Alternative communication systems in disaster – torchlight Morse code communication in Mizoram

In Mizoram, there is a practice of an alternative system of propagation of messages called torchlight Morse code communication. It is an indigenous technology, by improvising the existing W/T based on Morse code communication into Mizo language. Morse code encodes the Roman alphabet, the Arabic numerals and a small set of punctuation and procedural signals as standardized sequences of short and long "dots" and "dashes", or "dits" and "dahs". In the Mizo method, hand-held portable torchlight was used to transmit Morse code by light signal and the receiver could easily interpret the message using the same code. This mode of communication augured well in the folded belt of Mizoram trending in N-S direction and most of the villages/town exists on the top of the hillocks. Most of the village built signal tower in the elevated places and any person who was well versed in the system was on duty by rotation to received, reply and forwarded the message. This practice, which was banned and became dormant when Mizoram was declared as a Disturbed Area according to Armed Forces (Assam & Manipur) Acts, 1958 in 1966, is now revived by Disaster Management Centre, Administrative Training Institute, Mizoram in collaboration with Mizo Signal Corps by training NGOs and Mizoram Police Radio Organization personnel. With its advantages and limitations, it may also be applicable in other part of India, especially in other hilly, vulnerable and inaccessible area.

Study of the effect of spin orbit interaction on band structures in III-V semiconductor compounds

We present a study of the effect of the spin–orbit interaction on the band structures in III-V binary semiconductor compounds like GaAs, GaP, GaSb, etc. Our calculations were performed using a self-consistent, full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method as implemented in Wien2k code. We found that the inclusion of spin-orbit interaction affects on the band structures, and the splitting of degenerate valence band occurs on high symmetry G-point. We obtained the results on the band structures without and with the inclusion of spin-orbit interaction and compare the results. We also measured the value of the splitting energy and found that our results are similar to the calculated value of earlier results.

Impact of jhum burning on air quality and human health in Mizoram, India

Deterioration of air quality, which is an alteration of atmospheric chemistry by pollutants from natural and anthropogenic sources is of major global environmental concerns today. The sources of deterioration of air quality in Mizoram is mainly due to shifting cultivation or slash and burn agriculture or jhum burning, one of the main form of agriculture and livelihood of the villagers. Large amounts of air pollutants are emitted during prescribed forest fires (jhum burning). Unlike wildfires, prescribed fires are intentionally ignited in order to maintain ecosystem health and minimize adverse impacts of long-term fire suppression while protecting property. However, jhum burning has resulted in many forms of pollution, directly and indirectly hampering the natural environment .The need to understand the effect of jhum burning and the consequences not only on soil, but on air and human health is important.

Modelling the dynamics of CD4+ T cells with and without delay

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is one of the most serious public health problems in the world, which greatly affects the socio-economic growth. Mathematical models can serve as tools for understanding the epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS. In this paper, we consider a mathematical model having three compartments. Uninfected and infected states are proposed and analysed. It is found that the uninfected state is locally stable when the reproduction number R0 < 1 and the infected state is locally stable when R0 ≥ 1 and globally stable when R0 > 1. The model is analysed with and without delay. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the results.

Geological investigation and mitigation suggestion of slumping localities in Saiha town, southern Mizoram, India

Saiha town slumping area was triggered by cloud burst on the 16th and 17th May, 1995. Prominent transverse cracks were observed from the month of October, 2010 at the rupture surface of subsidence localities such as New Colony-I, New Colony-III, College Veng and Council Veng, Saiha. About 310 houses were affected. This could be due to high rate of percolation of rain water which developed pore pressure and weakening connection between the top and bottom layer, thus, reduced shear strength or resisting force. A continuous movement was observed till 2013, and maybe unsafe localities if not mitigate at the correct time. The present paper deals with geological field investigations as well as recommendation in terms of preventive and remedial measures.